Timber studwork is a quick and inexpensive way to erect simple buildings and partitions. The construction of a wooden stand is also very simple. After a successful project, virtually everyone is a pro at this art. In this text you can read everything you need to know about the construction of a wooden stud wall.
You can always check our website for more content: blog
Timber framework or drywall?
The difference between a stud frame and drywall is the interior material. In the case of drywall, U-profiles made of thin and folded sheet metal are usually used today. They are of absolutely constant quality and do not change over the duration of their installation. Wood, on the other hand, is a natural, living building material. It breathes and moves, depending on room humidity and temperature. Nevertheless, due to its naturalness, timber framework is the more pleasant material in terms of building biology. It can also be used in a variety of ways. Drywall is used for the sole purpose of constructing interior partitions. But with a wooden frame, you can easily build a gazebo, a carport or a pavilion. This is not possible with U-plates and plasterboard.
The golden rule for stud and half-timbering
When building stud frames of all kinds, the “golden rule of carpentry” must always be observed. This reads: “Triangle stands – rectangle passes”. This means: Wherever a rectangular or square frame is erected, diagonal bracing must be installed. If the frame is paneled over the entire surface, the paneling provides the necessary stability along the longitudinal axis. However, as soon as open fields, hatches, windows or just supporting feet plus roof construction are erected as a wooden framework, diagonal bracing is required. Otherwise the construction will inevitably fall over within a very short time.
What is a timber frame?
A timber framework is practically any construction made of a timber frame plus boarding or framework. A log house made of tree trunks stacked on top of each other is therefore not a timber framework. However, as soon as a framework consisting of supporting and frame timber is erected, one speaks of a stud frame. The following can be considered as stud frames:
There are practically no limits to creativity when building with timber frames. The advantage of this design is that it can be changed as much as you like. If a window needs to be moved to a different position, this is usually possible without any problems. In addition, they are very inexpensive and, with appropriate care, also very durable.
Build a wooden framework yourself – this is how it works
The first question you have to ask yourself when building a wooden frame is: Is it an open or a closed construction? Open constructions are, for example, pavilions or carports. A closed construction is a wooden stud wall or an entire building made of wooden studs. An open construction must be supported by diagonal struts according to the “golden rule”. Depending on the type of cladding, you can do without diagonal bracing in a closed wooden stud wall.
However, you should take a close look here: A formwork made of tongue and groove panels attached with weak nails is by no means as strong as a continuous board made of plasterboard. It requires some experience and a sense of proportion as to whether and how many diagonal struts are installed to be on the safe side. However, with an inner wall that is drawn in between two load-bearing walls, there is no risk of overturning along the longitudinal axis anyway.
To build the wooden framework yourself you need:
- Wooden beams at least 10 x 10 cm
- Wood screws at least 15 cm long
- suitable formwork (tongue and groove; gypsum plasterboard)
- Powerful drill
- cordless screwdriver
- hammer and nails
- if necessary, concrete dowels and concrete anchors
- if necessary, thick mineral wool for soundproofing
- a helper
- Hearing protection, eye protection and respiratory protection (when drilling in concrete)
- vacuum cleaner
Tip: Always pre-drill holes
As soon as you want to build a wooden stand yourself, you should think of wood drills, cordless screwdrivers and wood screws. Simply connecting boards and joists with wood screws is not optimal. The wood can split at this point and tear open later. This not only looks ugly, it also reduces the stability of the wooden stud wall. This cannot happen with pre-drilled holes. In the case of large holes, for example for the ground anchors, you can also chamfer the through holes with a larger drill. A small chamfer, that small bevel between the horizontal and vertical lines along the drill hole, prevents the wood from splitting.
In this assembly guide, we assume that you want to install a partition wall in an existing building.
When building a wooden stand yourself, a lot depends on the preparation. Depending on how complex the project should be, first draw a sketch. There are numerous programs available on the Internet that can help you with this, such as FREECAD or INKSCAPE. Draw in the exact spot where the wooden stud wall is to be erected. Use the spirit level to draw a plumb line on the wall where you want the stud wall to abut. The more precise you are when measuring, the easier it will be for you to build the wooden framework yourself later.
2. From bottom to top
Draw a line on the floor with a pencil. It must run exactly along the outer edge of the timber stud wall, minus the thickness of the boarding. Align the lower crossbar with this line. This is fixed to the ground with stable concrete anchors. To do this, pre-drill the holes not only in the concrete but also in the beam and chamfer the drill holes with a larger drill bit. Double check the result to be absolutely sure. Now you can correct something non-destructively and move the wall by a few centimeters. Later this is no longer possible.
If a door is to be built into the wall, make sure that the short side of the foot beam is also anchored at least twice, preferably three times, in the floor. With a continuous toe bar, leave a few millimeters of space on both sides. This is not necessary with a door opening.
3. Attach sides
Beams are now attached to the right and left of the wall for lateral attachment. They are also attached to the side walls with heavy-duty anchors. Take the fixed crossbeam as a measuring point and use the spirit level to draw a vertical line upwards. This line is the hitting point for the vertical bars. Pull the beam up to the ceiling and leave a few millimeters of air there. This is how the wood can work.
4. Fasten ceiling joists
Fastening the ceiling beam depends on whether you are working alone or in pairs. If you are working alone, you can screw a support to the vertical beams with a simple steel angle. First place the ceiling beam there before you fix it to the ceiling. For reasons of stability, the wooden stud wall should always be fixed to the structure on the other side. In addition, you prevent an unpleasant draft. The ceiling beam is also fixed with a sufficient number of concrete anchors. Pre-drill the holes in the beam at regular intervals. Place the beam on the two auxiliary brackets and mark the drilling points on the concrete ceiling. Take the ceiling beam down again and drill the dowel holes in the ceiling. The helper can pick up the drilling dust with the vacuum cleaner.
5. Pull in the retaining bar
The formwork is installed transversely to the direction of the internal beams. As a rule, tongue and groove boards are installed one on top of the other. Accordingly, the internal retaining beams must be screwed in vertically. However, if you want vertical formwork, you must install the inner beams horizontally. This is irrelevant for the statics of the wooden stud wall in the interior. Outside, however, you must install the cladding horizontally due to the weather resistance.
You can use thinner beams for the inside beams. However, they must be as wide as the frame beams so that they form a continuous line with them. Thin angles are ideal for this, which connect inner beams to the frame with small wood screws. Again, you can leave a few millimeters of air at the top. This prevents the wood from cracking and squeaking when the temperature changes. There are no diagonal braces here because the building’s brick walls ensure transverse stability.
6. Attach casing to one side
Align the bottom panel with great care and accuracy. Use the spirit level and double check before attaching the second panel. Then simply close the page. Insert the tongue and groove panels into each other and fix them with the nails provided. You may need to trim the top panel with a saw. Use a circular table saw that can be precisely adjusted. At the top, you will need to nail or screw through the visible side of the panels. Suitable protective caps are commercially available for this purpose, with which the screw heads can be “camouflaged” again. If necessary, a paint stick is also suitable to restore the aesthetics of the wall, which is clad throughout with tongue and groove panels.
In the case of an intermediate or dividing wall, the insulating wool is used less for thermal insulation than for sound insulation. Uninsulated partition walls let practically every cough through, which can quickly turn out to be very annoying. The trade offers particularly dense insulating wool for this purpose. It offers the maximum possible soundproofing. The insulating material is simply cut to size and inserted into the open fields. If necessary, the insulating wool can be protected against the ingress of moisture by a film. This makes sense, for example, if the partition wall is installed in a laundry room. If there is a large sound source on the other side of the partition, make the wall thicker accordingly.
8. Finish the wooden stud wall
After the insulating wool has been installed, the second side of the wooden stud wall is boarded. Proceed in the same way as with the first page. Then the wooden stud wall is finished.